|What is Substance Dependence?
Substance abuse is characterized by a need for more and
more substance in order to achieve the desired high. This
is called tolerance.
Substance abuse is generally characterized by withdrawal
symptoms. These symptoms are usually the opposite of those
associated with being high and are typical of the substance
Other symptoms of substance abuse may include unsuccessful
attempts at cutting down or stopping use, spending a lot
of time doing things to get the substance or time using
In addition, the person tends to give up social, work-related,
and recreational activities that had been important to
them. There is continued use despite the evidence that
bad things are happening due to the substance use. Many
people, besides the substance abuser, suffer as a consequence
of substance abuse spouses, children, employers
and so on.
Neurofeedback Research Findings
An excess of brainwaves associated
with anxiety or obsessing has been used to predict relapse
Typical Responses to Neurofeedback
Increasing brainwaves associated with
relaxation generally decreases brainwaves associated
Use of neurofeedback in alcoholics is
associated with the following findings:
(1) 80% rate of abstinence
in some studies (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989);
(2) a decrease in depression and anxiety
scores on self-report questionnaires (Peniston &
Kulkowsky, 1990, 1995; Saxby & Peniston, 1995);
(3) increased conscientiousness and
self-control (Peniston & Kulkowsky, 1990).
Greater stress tolerance and less anxiety
Increased ability to meditate
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